A

  • Abstract : Presented by the Game in contrast to Concrete, Abstract ideas are created by using examples found in the concrete world to build generalizations. For example, the characteristics of a soccer ball can be used to build a general set of characteristics that apply to all balls, not just soccer balls, such as round, bounce and play. (3)

  • Accountability : A tool, used in conjunction with Transparency, to ensure the flow of information is timely and accurate by ensuring the cause of problems are identified and corrected. (17)

  • Ad Nauseam : A tool of propaganda that uses tireless repetition of the same point over and over again. This tool is particularly effective because repetition interacts with the subconscious so that unsupported ideas sufficiently repeated without challenge feel like established truth to an unsuspecting audience. (79)

  • Adaptation : Open systems that adapt to changing external environments are actively creating internal balance. (24)

  • Antisocial Personality Disorder (Sociopath) : A pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood (American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition). (63)

  • Appeal Against The Person (Argumentum Ad Hominem) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on attacking the person rather than his/her argument (see Appeal Against the Person: Abusive, Circumstantial, Tu quoque and Guilt by Association). This class of Logical Fallacy is generally referred to as “ad hominem attacks.” (35)

  • Appeal Against The Person, Abusive : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on attacking the person’s character rather than his/her argument. (35)

  • Appeal Against The Person, Circumstantial : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on attacking the person’s motivations rather than his/her argument. (35)

  • Appeal Against The Person, Guilt By Association : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on attacking the person’s association with other persons, places or things, rather than his/her argument. (35)

  • Appeal Against The Person, Tu Quoque (you To) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on Person-A attacking Person-B by transferring A’s weaknesses onto B. (35)

  • Appeal To Aesthetics : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of aesthetics (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Authority (Argumentum Ad Verecundiam) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the testimony of an unqualified person. (30)

  • Appeal To Consequences (Argumentum Ad Consequentiam) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the positive or negative consequences of acceptance (see Appeals to: Force, Fear, Ridicule and Flattery). (32)

  • Appeal To Emotion (Argumentum Ad Populam) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on emotional manipulation (see Appeals to: Pity, Novelty, Prejudice, Patriotism, Aesthetics and Hope). (33)

  • Appeal To Fear (Argumentum Ad Timor) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on scaring another as a means of persuasion (see Appeals to Consequences). (32)

  • Appeal To Flattery (Argumentum Ad Adulatio) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on flattering another as a means of persuasion (see Appeals to Consequences). (32)

  • Appeal To Force (Argumentum Ad Baculum) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on threatening another with harm as a means of persuasion (see Appeals to Consequences). (32)

  • Appeal To History (Argumentum Ad Antiquitatem) : A Logical Fallacy where an argument is based on the concept “We should do this now because it’s always been done that way.” If A is the way it has always been done and B is the way it is presently done, then B should be similar to A. (50)

  • Appeal To Hope : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of hope (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Ignorance (Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on a lack of evidence the opposite is true/false. (34)

  • Appeal To Logic (argumentum Ad Logicam) : A Logical Fallacy where an argument asserts that something is false simply because a proof or argument that someone else has offered for it is invalid, as there may be another proof or argument that successfully supports the proposition. (51)

  • Appeal To Nature (argumentum Ad Natura) : A Logical Fallacy where an argument that assumes whatever is "natural" or consistent with "nature" (somehow defined) is good, or that whatever conflicts with nature is bad. (52)

  • Appeal To Novelty : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of ideas simply because they are striking, original or unusual (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Patriotism : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of cultural attachment to one's homeland or devotion to one's country (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Pity (Argumentum Ad Misericordiam) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of feelings of sadness or sorrow for others (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Prejudice : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the emotional use of preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, political opinion, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race / ethnicity, language, nationality or other personal characteristics. (see Appeal to Emotion). (33)

  • Appeal To Ridicule (Argumentum Ad Ludibrium) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on embarrassing another as a means of persuasion (see Appeals to Consequences). (32)

  • Appeal To The People (Argumentum Ad Populum) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on common believes or traditional practices. (31)

  • Appeal To Values (Argumentum Ad Pendo) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments derived from conclusions about what is right or good that are not based on factual evidence. (53)

  • Argument Form : The aspect of Informal Logic that governs the order of Logical Statements, which lead to Logical Conclusions, and comprise the process of knowledge building. (29)

  • Association : The opposite of Transfer where a person or group draws themselves toward another person or group to take advantage of some positive quality held by the other. (90)

  • Assumption : Any statement represented as true based on past analysis without any current effort to account for potential change in circumstances. (21)

    B

  • Balance : The outcome of tension within competing system parts. Balance through tension is the default state of systems in nature and the goal of purposeful self-regulating human systems that seek balanced sustainability. (14)

    C

  • Causation (cause And Effect) : A relationship which exists between two events which can be summed up as one event (the cause) bringing about the occurrence of the other (the effect). (20)

  • Centralization : A state where any element, such as political power, is so concentrated that it creates system imbalance, which leads to system dysfunction and the inability to maintain balance (see Decentralization). (26)

  • Change : The single constant force present in all things. If change within a system and its environment is not addressed, that system will eventually breakdown into ever increasing degrees of dysfunction until it stops functioning altogether. Of equal importance is the positive relationship between change and possibility. Just as life cannot exist without death, in the same way possibility cannot exist without change. (1)

  • Circular Reasoning (circulus In Probando) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on using the conclusion of a proof as part of that same proof. (45)

  • Coalition Of Universal Time Traveling Societies (CUTTS) : The interstellar organization that created and brought Lingua Galaxiae to Earth. For more detailed information, see the “About” tab at LinguaGalaxiae.com.

  • Cognitive Fallibility : The imperfect human act of processing raw sensory data, which compounds the imperfections of the 5-senses (Sensory Fallibility). The Game considers Cognitive Fallibility to be a sub-set of Human Psychology. (61)

  • Compassion : The act of recognizing and identifying with the emotions and experiences of others. Considered by Lingua Galaxiae to be one of the Empathy Maintenance Tools triad that also includes Forgiveness and Redemption (58)

  • Complex Question (plurium Interrogationum) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on trick questions, multiple questions or is a question that presumes something true (presupposition) that is complex. Example: Have you stopped beating your dog? (91)

  • Concrete : Presented by the Game in contrast to Abstract, Concrete represents fixed physical thought. (3)

  • Conflation : To mix up several distinct issues, often (but not always) with the aim of changing or redirecting away from the topic (similar to Equivocation). (40)

  • Control : Humans have some degree of desire to control themselves and the world around them. Some humans do this to a slight degree while others spend every waking hour attempting to control everything and become consumed by any perception of failure. Most humans live somewhere in the middle of these 2-extreams. Lingua Galaxiae asserts that humans psychologically seek control as a way of masking their own fallibilities and that metaphysical understanding is driven by an emotional desire for control of the infinite unknown. (59)

  • Correlation : When 2 or more things share one or more characteristics. Just because there is a correlation between 2-events, 2-things happening at the same time and place, does not mean one event caused the other event. Lingua Galaxiae considers the conflation of correlation and causation to be an essential tool of Propaganda. (20)

    D

  • Decentralization : A state within a system where elements, such as political power, are evenly distributed so as to not create imbalance, thereby allowing the system to freely pursue its goals of balanced sustainability (see Centralization). (26)

  • Direct Order : A tool of propaganda that simplifies the decision making process by using images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. (82)

  • Disinformation : A tool of propaganda that intentionally uses false or inaccurate information that is deliberately spread through the media. (83)

  • Duality : The study of relationship between 2 distinct ideas by simultaneously asking about their differences and similarities (compare and contrast) in the context of their interaction. (2)

    E

  • Emotion : Presented by the Game in dualistic opposition to Thought, Emotion represents internal human feelings about the external world. Emotion is the complex interaction between the thoughts of an individual's internal mind and the external motivations of environmental influences that varies, person-to-person/ situation-to-situation. (78)

  • Empathy : The complex state of recognizing and identifying with the emotions (see Basic Human Emotions, #62) and experiences of others. Maintaining a healthy degree of empathy towards others is facilitated by three tools: Compassion, Forgiveness and Redemption. (57)

  • Equivocation : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on applying two different meanings to the same word so as to obscure the distinction between those meanings (similar to Conflation). (40)

  • Euphoria : A tool of propaganda that uses an event to generate euphoria or happiness, or that uses an appealing event to boost morale. Euphoria can be created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available, or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic messages. (84)

  • Evidence-based Values : One of the three primary parts of language, Evidence-based Values are created by analyzing physical evidence followed by asking, given the evidence, what rules are required to reach the system’s stated goals. Evidence-based Values create balance between the human Operator of language and the Operation of linguistics. The challenge is to then act with integrity so that actions mirror values. (13) (57)

  • Exploitation : To use a resource without regard for Tension, Balance or Sustainability. (22)

  • External Cost : Those costs of a product that are not accounted for by the market price. (see Internal Cost). (25)

    F

  • False Analogy : A Logical Fallacy that argues if two or more things are alike in some respects, then they are also alike in other respects (see Causation vs. Correlation). (44)

  • False Cause : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on correlation in the absence of causality, conflating causality with correlation (see False Correlation by Time, Place and Association). (36)

  • False Cause By Association : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on arguing that A is connected with B because of an otherwise meaningless characteristic that is otherwise commonly understood (see False Correlation). (36)

  • False Cause By Place (Post Hic, Ergo Propter Hic -- After Here, Therefore Because Of Here) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on arguing that item B is similar to item A simply because B shares a physical proximity with A (see False Correlation). (36)

  • False Cause By Time (Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc -- After This, Therefore Because Of This) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on arguing that event A caused event B simply because A preceded B in time (see False Correlation). (36)

  • False Composition : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguing that what is true of the parts is true of the whole. (42)

  • False Compromise : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on arguing that the most valid conclusion is that which accepts the best compromise between two competing positions. (49)

  • False Dilemma Of Either/Or (reproba Dilemma Of Aut/vel) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on there being only two possible options and where only one of those options can be correct. (39)

  • False Division : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguing what is true of the whole is true of the parts. (43)

  • Fear : A Primary Human Emotion, Fear is considered by Lingua Galaxiae to be the most important of all human emotions because Fear opens the mind and heart to the subordinate emotion, Hate. Once opened to Hate, the individual turns control of the self over to manipulation by others. (65)

  • Finite : Presented by the Game in contrast to Infinite, Finite is the state of having a limit in terms of quantity, degree, or capacity. (4)

  • Finite Language : All language is the act of creating labels to separate and organize the infinite experience. Even poetry is unable to fully capture the infinite human experience that exists beyond language. (56)

  • Forgiveness : The act of releasing feelings of resentment, indignation or anger towards an individual or group resulting from some perceived offense made by that individual or group. Forgiveness is one of three Empathy Maintenance Tools that also includes Compassion and Redemption. (58)

  • Framing : Propagandists “frame,” or organize, a message to ensure it delivers the intended meaning. The act of framing is the “set-up” to ensure a predictable outcome. (78)

    G

  • Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17, 1600) : Bruno was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer and today is the patron martyr of Lingua Galaxiae. Living between the times of Copernicus and Galileo, Bruno was burned alive at the stake by the Roman Catholic Inquisition on February 17, 1600, for sins that included the argument: God is infinite, God made Creation in his own image, and therefore Creation must also be infinite to include life on other planets. Bruno’s date of martyrdom is celebrated as a day of remembrance by all players of Lingua Galaxiae past and future.

  • Glittering Generalities : A tool of propaganda where an argument is based on emotionally appealing words that provide no concrete argument or analysis. A famous example is the campaign slogan "Ford has a better idea!" (85)

  • Golden Rule : “Treat others like you want to be treated.” The Golden Rule is the force that drives the engine of Empathy towards others; and in so doing, ensures balance between the Human Operator and the Linguistic Operation of Language. Some form of the Golden Rule is found in virtually every major world religion. (57)

    H

  • Hasty Generalization (a Dicto Simpliciter Ad Dictum Secundum Quid: From The Statement Unqualified To : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguing something is true for the whole by ignoring the exception. (41)

  • Human Emotions : Human feelings that are generated in response to internal and external stimulus that includes: Fear, Love, Joy, Surprise, Anger and Sadness. When balanced, human emotions are a necessary part of healthy human experience; imbalanced, human emotions create unhealthy human experience. (59)

  • Human Fallibilities : Flaws in the management of raw data and include Sensory Fallibility (raw input), Cognitive Fallibility (processing of raw input), Mnemonic Fallibility (retention of raw and processed input), Social Fallibility (Antisocial Personality Disorder), Interpersonal Fallibility (Self Deception). (59)

  • Human Nature : The Game narrowly defines the study of human nature to include those basic aspects of the human condition that influence language: Human Fallibilities, Basic Emotions and Basic Weaknesses. (13) (59)

  • Human Weaknesses : In contrast to Human Emotions, Human Weaknesses are expressions of imbalanced human emotional desire and include: Lust, Gluttony, Greed, Sloth, Wrath, Envy and Pride. (59)

    I

  • Inconsistency : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on using a set of ideas that simultaneously cannot be true. (48)

  • Infinite : Presented by the Game in contrast to Finite, infinite is the state of having no limit in terms of quantity, degree, or capacity. The length of a line in geometry extends out in opposite directions for an infinite distance, without bound or end. (4)

  • Infinite Experience : According to CUTTS, and therefore to this Game, the universe and everything in it is infinite in both time and space. As part of the universe, humans are infinite and can experience this infinity up to the point where they start to think or in any way apply language (see Finite Language). (56)

  • Information Flow : Communication between the parts of any system for the purpose of facilitating Sustainability through Tension and Balance. Without accurate and timely information flow, the process of Tension and Balance cannot produce Sustainability. (16)

  • Integrity : Making a good faith effort to honor Evidence-based values as they relate to a system’s goals. There must be consistent integrity between thought and action within any human system if that system is to remain Balanced and Sustainable. (see Transparency) (17)

  • Intentional Vagueness : A form of propaganda where generalities are deliberately made vague so that the audience is so busy supplying its own interpretations that it foregoes any meaningful analysis. (86)

  • Internal Cost : Those costs of a product that are accounted for by the market price (see External Cost). (25)

    L

  • Labeling : A form of propaganda where euphemism is used to characterize an argument to increase the perceived quality, credibility, or credence of a particular idea. Propaganda can also employ a dysphemism where the objective is to discredit, diminish the perceived quality, or hurt the perceived righteousness of another’s argument. (87)

  • Lingua Galaxiae : The combination of Linguistics, Human Nature and Values to create a purposefully driven and self-correcting human language system. (13)

  • Linguistic Experience : The observation of facts and events (see Linguistic Expression). (55)

  • Linguistic Expression : The use of language to represent experience (see Linguistic Experience). (55)

  • Linguistic Operation (verb) : The way language functions independent from the influence of the Linguistic Operator (see antonym: Linguistic Operator). (54)

  • Linguistic Operator (noun) : The individual using language in relationship with all the internal and external influences that make up an individual’s perspective (see antonym: Linguistic Operation). (54)

  • Linguistic Tools : A way of organizing language for the purpose of studying and understanding ideas. For instance, the Game’s use of duality is such a tool, with Plot vs. Theme as example. There is nothing inherently true about the tool of duality; it is simply a tool for further discovery. Like physical tools such as a shovel or computer, linguistic tools require skill-building, maintenance and discarding when found obsolete. (2)

  • Linguistics (semiotics) : The scientific study of human language that encompasses both the function of language (operation) and the influence of the person (operator) on that function. (13) (54)

  • Logic : The “Algebra of Language” that governs the organization of ideas for the purpose of building knowledge. The Game emphasizes 2 aspects of Informal Logic: Argument Form and Logical Fallacies. (29)

  • Logical Fallacies : Those forms of argument that are prohibited by Logic and Lingua Galaxiae because they blur the relationship between language and the physical world. By accident or design, fallacies exploit emotional triggers in the audience, often by taking advantage of social relationships (peer pressure) between people. Lingua Galaxiae presents fallacies in a dual role, both as prohibition and as an essential part of a propagandist’s toolbox. (29)

  • Love : A Primary Human Emotion, Love is considered by Lingua Galaxiae to be the most powerful of all human emotions because Love protects the mind and heart from the opposing emotion, Fear. (66)

    M

  • Metaphysics : Presented by Lingua Galaxiae in contrast to Physics, Metaphysics is the study of the non-physical world. Metaphysics is speculation because there is no physical evidence to support or refute metaphysical statements or conclusions. Any statement that cannot be measured is considered by the Game to be Metaphysical. Lingua Galaxiae sets metaphysics outside its realm as an intellectual Other without prejudice and does not allow the use of metaphysical ideas as the basis of any statement or conclusion. (5)

  • Mnemonic Fallibility : Human recall of sensory raw data and the cognitive processing of that data is imperfect. The Game considers Mnemonic Fallibility to be a sub-set of Human Psychology. (60)

    N

  • Name Calling : A tool of propaganda that creates fear and arouses prejudice by using negative words (bad names) to create an unfavorable opinion or hatred against a group, beliefs, ideas or institutions they would have us denounce. (87)

  • Narrative : Similar to Framing, Narrative is the act of creating a story for the purpose of controlling the message. The process starts with the end-message and then walks-backwards selecting/creating only that the information which supports the message. Lingua Galaxiae considers Narrative to be the founding element of propaganda where all efforts and techniques serve the Narrative. (78)

  • Non-Sequitur (it Does Not Follow) : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises. In a non sequitur, the conclusion could be either true or false, but the argument is fallacious because there is a disconnection between the premise and the conclusion. (36)

    O

  • Objective : Presented by the Game in contrast to Subjective, a proposition is generally considered to be objectively true when there is sufficient physical evidence demonstrating that truth. An objective thought is held in common by the people sharing the experience of observation. (3)

  • Opportunity Cost : A business balance-sheet term that can be applied to any system where some value is lost because the opportunity of pursuing that value was ignored. (27)

  • Oversimplification : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on proposing a solution without taking into account all relevant factors. (37)

    P

  • Physics : Presented by the Game in contrast to Metaphysics, Physics is the study of the physical world. If something can be measured, it is physical and can be discussed as physics. (5)

  • Plot : The plot in a story is the product of events and actions (who, what, when, where and how) that result in artistic and emotional effects (see Six Basic Human Emotions (65-70). The Game places Plot in dualistic opposition to Theme. (2)

  • Primary Human Emotions : There are six Primary Human Emotions that influence the understanding and use of language: Fear, Love, Joy, Surprise, Anger and Sadness. (65)

  • Propaganda : Propaganda is the intentional act of distorting the relationship between language and physical evidence for the purpose of manipulating audiences. (7) (78)

    Q

  • Quality : Presented by the Game in contrast to Quantity, quality is an attribute or a property. Attributes are assigned to a subject, whereas properties are possessed by a subject. When we characterize something, we are discussing the quality of that something. (4)

  • Quantity : Presented by the Game in contrast to Quality, Quantity can be thought of in terms of "more" or "less" or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value in terms of a unit of measurement. Quantity generally functions as a property, dimension or attribute of things such as heavy and light, long and short, broad and narrow, small and great, or much and little. If a thing can be added to or subtracted from, multiplied or divided, it is a quantity. (4)

  • Quotes Out-of-context : A tool of propaganda based on selectively editing quotes or to hide the source of a quote in order to manipulate meaning. (88)

    R

  • Rationalization : A form of propaganda that uses a logical justification for a belief, decision or action that was originally arrived at through a different thought process. It is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are explained in a rational or logical manner to avoid/hide the evidence-based explanation of the behavior or feeling. (89)

  • Red Herring : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits any argument based on sidetracking the opposition by introducing a non-related issue that seems relevant as a means of distraction. (47)

  • Redemption : Belief in the capacity for change in the self and others through the alignment of words, thoughts and actions with the Golden Rule. (58)

    S

  • Scapegoating : A form of propaganda whereby one person or group projects responsibility for a problem onto another without cause in order to distract attention away from the actual cause of the problem. (90)

  • Self-deception : A process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance, significance, or importance of opposing evidence and logical argument. Self-deception involves convincing oneself of a truth (or lack of truth) so as to deny the self of any knowledge of the deception. (64)

  • Self-Knowledge : The personal discovery of self. Tools for aiding in this discovery include: Who am I? and What do I want?

  • Sensory Fallibility : The five human senses provide raw data to the brain. These senses are imperfect, or fallible, and should only be relied on with cautionary skepticism by following the Rules of Discovery. The Game considers Sensory Fallibilities to be a sub-group of Psychology. (60)

  • Slippery Slope : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the assertion that something is itself undesirable because it is first in a chain of events that will lead to an undesirable outcome. Something A is undesirable because A comes before B, which is itself undesirable (see Causation vs. Correlation). (38)

  • Slogans : A tool of propaganda that uses brief and striking phrases (see Labeling) that are emotionally appealing. (87)

  • Social Fallibility : Humans are socially fallible to the extent that we often act with disregard for others. The Game takes this position based on the assumption that healthy human interaction is best guided by concern for others in balance with concern for self. When humans stray outside of this balance, the Game characterizes that behavior as antisocial (see Antisocial Personality Disorder). The Game considers Social Fallibilities to be a sub-group of Psychology. (63)

  • Steps Of Discovery : There are four-steps to Discovery: 1. Construct an affirmative statement. 2. Collect relevant data 3. Analyze Data 4. Adjust affirmative statement in step-one to conform to new data analysis in step-three. (8)

  • Stereotyping : A tool of propaganda that attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable (see Labeling). (87)

  • Straw Man : A Logical Fallacy that prohibits arguments based on the misrepresentation of an opposing position. (46)

  • Subjective : Presented by the Game in contrast to Objective, Subjective refers to an individual’s perspective, feelings, beliefs, and desires. A subjective thought is unique to the person experiencing it. (3)

  • Sustainability : The goal of healthy living systems where Tension produces Balance so that systems may continue to pursue its goals while adjusting for changes within itself and the external environment. (15)

  • System Goals : The stated agenda of healthy human systems where balance through tension fosters sustainable longevity. (23)

  • Systems : To understand events not as a grouping of individual parts but as the interaction of those parts.

  • Systems Thinking : To think systematically is to determine the parts of a system and then to study the relationship between parts (11)

    T

  • Tension : The mechanism within self-regulating systems that uses information flow to create system balance. Tension is in service to Balance, which is in the case of purposeful human systems in service to the goal of Sustainability. Since all environments are in a constant state of change, tension accommodates change. (14)

  • Testimonial : A tool of propaganda (see Association) that associates a respected person or someone with experience to endorse a product or cause by giving it their stamp of approval hoping that the intended audience will follow their example. (90)

  • Tests Of Discovery : Tests that govern what ideas are eligible for consideration by the Game. 1. Can the evidence be Tested? 2. Can this test be Replicated by others? 3. Can the evidence be Negated by testing? Any statement where the answer is “no” to any of the above three tests, is considered Metaphysics and is not eligible for consideration by the Game. (9)

  • The Big Lie : A tool of propaganda coined by Adolf Hitler in his book, Mein Kampf, that sways the opinion of unsuspecting persons because; 1) it contains some element(s) of truth; and 2) a reasonable person cannot identify with anyone so lacking in integrity (see Antisocial Personality Disorder) that they would intentionally make such a huge lie. (80)

  • The Other : A tool of propaganda that seeks to use the natural psychological mechanism of self-identity, the act of creating difference, to cast an opposing idea or speaker in a negative light. The Other is the basis of the either/or fallacy of Us vs. Them. Propagandists often employ this tool to diminish the humanity of those they oppose. (81)

  • Theme : An obvious element, like a type of Event, Device, Reference or Formula, which occurs frequently in works of literature and other types of art; to typify or characterize. The Game places Theme in dualistic opposition to Plot. (2)

  • Thought : Presented by the Game in dualistic opposition to Emotion, Thought represents a structured view of the physical world where things “make sense” and otherwise can be defined and categorized. (78)

  • Time Travel : The ability to control space and time. According to the Coalition of Universal Time Traveling Societies, the originators of Lingua Galaxiae, this event will happen on Earth on February 17, 2041, at 2:17 PM.

  • Tool : A way of organizing language for the purpose of studying and understanding ideas. For example, the Game’s use of duality is such a tool, with Plot vs. Theme as example. There is nothing inherently true about dualities; they are simply tools for further discovery. (2)

  • Transfer : A tool of propaganda that projects positive or negative qualities of one person or group onto another in order to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. Transfer evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target audience to identify with recognized authorities (see Appeal Against the Person, Tu quoque). (90)

  • Transparency : A tool of the Game that allows players to audit feedback to determine if it is accurate and timely. Furthermore, transparency implies openness and responsibility. In many ways, transparency is Integrity in action. (18)

  • Truth : The game considers truth to be a temporary state that is supported by analyzing relevant physical evidence. Therefore, truth is subordinate to evidence. Since change is constant, evidence has the potential for change so that truth has a potential for change. Any form of unchanging Truth (absolute truth) is considered independent of change and therefore metaphysical, which only exists outside the parameters of the game. (6)

    U

  • Unintended Consequences : Systems are inherently complex so that they often contain operations unknown to the observer. When complex systems are altered the result may include unexpected results. (28)

    V

  • Values : see Evidence-based Values

  • Virtue Words : A tool of propaganda that uses words in the value system of the target audience to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The Truth", etc. are virtue words (see Transfer). (90)

    W

  • Wholeness : A tool to drive the process of systems thinking to include all parts of a system. When a good faith effort is made to account for all the parts of a system, the system is deemed to be “whole.” (19)